[UML] 会社をUMLで描ききる試みについて || システムを取り巻くしがらみの図

そう思って調べてみると、IEEE 1471(IEEEのアーキテクチャ概念モデル(下図))では、「システム」に一つの定義を与えていました。
概略(By Jan Øyvind Aagedal):
「利害関係者」(stakeholders)は、1つのシステムに対して同じ関心もしくは懸念を持つ個人、チーム、もしくは組織(その意味では各階級も)である。 典型例は、下記。
¨ Client
¨ Acquirer
¨ Owner
¨ User
¨ Operator
¨ Architect
¨ System Engineer
¨ Developer
¨ Designer
¨ Builder
¨ Maintainer
¨ Service Provider
¨ Vendor
¨ Subcontractor
¨ Planner

これは、IFEAD というところが、IEEE1471をもとに企業体ドメインに変換し、拡張したものです。いわば、企業を「システム」に見立てた図です。

※ IEEE1471は、下記売店で、78ドルです。

Summary of IEEE 1471
By Jan Øyvind Aagedal, SINTEF Telecom and Informatics

Starting with system, it is defined to be “a collection of components organized to accomplish
a specific function or set of functions.” For the purposes of the recommended practice, “the
term system encompasses individual applications, systems in the traditional sense,
subsystems, systems of systems, product lines, whole enterprises, and other aggregations of
interest.” From this it follows that anything can be a system as long as it fulfils some purpose
(i.e., accomplishes function(s)) and one chooses to view it as a whole.

A system inhabits an environment, while the environment of a system can influence that
system. The environment, sometimes referred to as the context, “determines the settings and
circumstances of developmental, operational, political, and other influences upon that system.
The environment can include other systems that interact with the system of interest, either
directly via interfaces or indirectly in other ways. The environment determines the
boundaries that define the scope of the system of interest relative to other systems”.
Essentially, one draws a line between the system of interest and anything outside that system
that influences it in some way. This line is the interface between the system and its

A system has one or more stakeholders. A stakeholder has one or more concerns relative to
the system. Concerns are “those interests which pertains to the system’s development, its
operation or any other aspects that are critical or otherwise important to one or more
stakeholders.” Typical concerns a stakeholder can have relative to a system are functionality,
performance, security, reliability, safety, etc.
A system exists to fulfil one or more missions in its environment. The existence of a system
has a purpose; it should meet one or more objectives of one or more stakeholders. Often
some of these objectives coincide with enterprise objectives so that using the system is an
efficient use of resources in the enterprise.

So far, the terminology presented has only been related to systems and their environments.
However, most of IEEE Std 1471-2000 is concerned with architectural descriptions, and in
the following terminology related to this are presented.
A system has an architecture and this can be described in an architectural description. Note
the distinction between the architecture of a system, which is conceptual, from the description
of this architecture, which is concrete. Architectural description is defined as “a collection of
products to document an architecture”. The architectural description can be divided into one
or several views. Each view covers one or more stakeholder concerns. View is defined as “a
representation of a whole system from the perspective of a related set of concerns”. A view is
created according to rules and conventions defined in a viewpoint. Viewpoint is defined as “a
specification of the conventions for constructing and using a view. A pattern or template from
which to develop individual views by establishing the purposes and audience for a view and
the techniques for its creation and analysis”. The distinction between view and viewpoint is
analogous to that between a searchlight and what one sees using the searchlight as shown in
Figure 2. A view expresses those concerns of a system architecture that are defined in its
viewpoint definition. The viewpoint defines the languages and methods to use when
describing such views.
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